History of the development of polarized sunglasses

The light waves from the sun and artificial light bulbs, etc., are vibrated in various directions and spread. Regardless of whether the light is being propagated, reflection, divergence, or refraction, when the light rays toward the direction of one or more planar vibration, we say that the light polarization. The polarization process can be naturally occurring, and can also be artificial excitation. Each time you observe see the glare when the lake is a natural example of polarization. Glare reflected from the surface of the lake is not able to pass through the lake “filter” light, which is why even though the lake is very clear and not be able to see objects under the lake.
The polarization filters are generally made up in a transparent plastic or glass surfaces by a layer of chemical film plating. Generally, the compounds used in the molecules between are naturally arranged in parallel. When they are uniformly coated on the lens, these molecules form a tiny lens, able to absorb all direction and they are arranged in the same light.
Forcing you must wear Ray Ban Outlet sunglasses, the vast majority of glare from a horizontal surface, such as the surface of the water and highway. When the light reaches the one surface, the polarization of the reflected light will be the same as the direction and angle of the surface. Thus, a high level of a reflective surface, such as lake, can produce a large number of the horizontal polarized light. Therefore, sunglasses polarized lenses are fixed at an angle, so that the only vertically polarized light can through the lens. You can observe this principle by the following method: wear polarized sunglasses, and then observed a horizontal surface, such as a car’s hood. You will find that the glare from the surface will become bright as your line of sight angle adjustment.
Before buying, you can do a simple test to identify its authenticity. Find a reflective surface, and then took the sunglasses to observe the surface through a lens. Slowly rotate the sunglasses ninety degrees, the observed decrease or increase reflected glare. If the sunglasses are polarized sunglasses, you will see significantly reduce glare.
When you come indoors, leaving the UV irradiation, chemical inverse change will happen. Suddenly leave the irradiation of ultraviolet rays, these molecules will be quickly restored to the original structure, and thus lose this characteristic absorption of light. Whether it is a positive change or the inverse change the speed of the entire process occurs very quickly.
In the Corning Company 1960s the production of Photo Brown and Photogram series products, the lens is made of glass, the molecules evenly distributed throughout the lens. When this method is used in the prescription Cheap Oakley Sunglasses, it brings problems will become apparent, because the different parts of the prescription lens thickness may change slightly thicker some local color will be even darker. However, with the growing popularity of plastic lenses, it has developed a new method. The plastic lenses were immersed in a chemical bath, discoloration molecules will be absorbed into the plastic lens within the depth of about 150 microns. This new method to be significantly better than a simple coating process, in the coating process, the discoloration molecular a thickness of only 5 microns, so that it can not provide enough molecules to make the lens darkens. Currently, the Lenses manufacturing leader Transitions has been popularizing the plastic lenses adsorption process.

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RAY BAN History

Ray-Ban is an American brand of sunglasses founded in 1937 by Bausch & Lomb.They were introduced for the United States Army Air Corps. In 1999, Bausch & Lomb sold the brand to the Italian Luxottica Group for a reported $640 million.

History

Ray-Bans were first created in 1936. Some years earlier, Lieutenant John A. Macready (an American test pilot) returned from a balloon flight, complained that the sun had permanently damaged his eyes, and contacted Bausch & Lomb asking them to create sunglasses that would provide protection and also look sophisticated. On May 7, 1937, Bausch & Lomb took out the patent, and the Aviator was made available to the public. The prototype, known as Anti-Glare, had a frame weighing 150 grams. They were made of gold-plated metal with green lenses made of mineral glass to filter out infrared and ultraviolet rays. Pilots in the United States Army Air Corps immediately adopted the sunglasses. The army wanted sunglasses that would protect the soldiers’ eyes from harmful light while maintaining a stylish look. The Ray-Ban Aviator became a well-known style of sunglasses when General Douglas MacArthur landed on the beach in the Philippines in World War II, and photographers snapped several pictures of him wearing them. Ray-Bans were quickly seen outside the army. They quickly gained popularity through other warsand even made a debut in the movies. In 1952, Ray-Ban created another style, the Ray-Ban Wayfarer, this time with plastic frames, which became popular soon after its release. By 1962, Ray-Ban started to create impact-resistant lenses. It was not until ten years later when the United States of America made impact-resistant eye wear mandatory through the FDA regulation. Wayfarer sunglasses were seen on movie stars, TV stars, and musicians. Ray-Ban still remains a top designerin the sunglasses industry with its constant changes of color, frames, and lenses.

Celebrity endorsements

1950s and 1960s

The fifties was when Ray-Bans had gained recognition through American pop-culture endorsements for the first time. Kim Novak and Marilyn Monroe wore Wayfarers in public and movies. As the style grew in popularity, celebrities such as Roy Orbison, James Dean, Bob Dylan, and John F. Kennedy were seen in public and on television and movies wearing Wayfarers.

1970s and 1980s

As the 1970s lacked public celebrity endorsements for Ray-Ban, the 1980s was the decade of revival for them. In 1982, Ray-Ban signed a deal with a California companyfor $50,000 a year in order to have product placement for the brand in movies and television programs.

1990s

The 1990s had no record of new celebrities seen wearing Ray-Ban sunglasses; however, product placement in movies and television continued, such as in the 1997 film Men in Black.

2000 – present

The Wayfarer model reaches the light of British pop culture, as stars such as Lily Allen, Alexa Chung, and Agyness Deyn are seen wearing them in public or on television.

Ray-Ban’s “Never Hide” campaign was launched in March 2007. It consisted of a YouTube series and a film advocating customers to “Never pretend. Never be afraid. Never give up. Never Hide”. The campaign also encourages people to live their lives with authenticity and no fear of judgment. Short YouTube videos show musicians and bands such as Slash of Guns N’ Roses and Two Door Cinema Club wearing Ray-Ban products and playing live shows.

Publicity

Sales campaigns

In 2007 the company introduced a new campaign that aimed to make the brand more refreshing and compelling, especially toward younger people. Never Hide was its name; and it aimed to express the Ray-Ban ideology: “Sunglasses that place you at the centre of attention beyond trends, transcending time and strongly customising whoever wears them”.

Finally, in 2008 Ray-Ban presented Ray-Ban Remasters, a communication programthat consolidated Ray-Ban’s strong relationship with music, and its position as a global iconicbrand. Ray-Ban Remasters was a partnership with eight musicians who recorded a song of their choice from the ’50s and ’60s and remastered these songs exclusively for Ray-Ban. These songs were performed live in a series of three events in North America, China, and Europe.

Celebrity use

Throughout the ’50s and ’60s the Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses were the choice of various musicians such as Bob Marley to Bob Dylan. Ray-Ban became more popular after the release of the movie Top Gun. The movie generated a 40 percent increase in sales for the Ray-Ban Aviator brand. The ’80s garnered great attention to Ray-Ban through movies. John Belushi and Dan Akroyd wore them in The Blues Brothers. Bruce Willis wore them in his role as David Addison on Moonlighting. From 1982 through 1987 Ray-Ban placed their sunglasses in more than 60 movies and television shows, including Quentin Tarantino films such as the 1992 crime film Reservoir Dogs. Tom Cruise also wore Ray-Ban Wayfarer in Risky Business.

Internet advertising

Through virtual reality and online advertising Ray-Ban is now re-connecting with its customer/client base. Through augmented reality the company can demo products through the “Ray-Ban Virtual Mirror”, which bridges the gap between viewing and actually trying the product.  Through the virtual mirror the consumer seems to try on actual sunglasses.

In terms of social media outlets, Ray-Ban has a Facebook page as well as a Twitter page.

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Clubmaster history

Browline glasses

Browline glasses are a style of eyeglass frames which were very popular during the 1950s and 1960s, especially in the United States of America. The name derives from the fact that the bold upper part of the frames frame the lenses in the same way that eyebrows frame the eyes. The glasses were first manufactured by Shuron Ltd. in 1947 under the “Ronsir” brand and quickly emulated by various other manufacturers. The design became the most common style of eyeglasses throughout the 1950s and the early 1960s before it was surpassed in popularity by solid plastic styles. In the 1980s, interest in the design was reinvigorated when Ray-Ban began producing lines of sunglasses and eyeglasses known as the “Wayfarer Max” and “Clubmaster” in 1986.

Description

Browline glasses are constructed from a combination of metal and either plastic or aluminum. The lenses of the glasses are fixed in metal frames which then insert into plastic “brows,” which are attached to the earpieces of the glasses. Traditionally the bridge of the glasses is metal and affixed to the metal portion of the frame surrounding the lenses. In more recent styles, the bridge is part of the plastic “brow” portion.

History

Browline glasses were invented in 1947 by Jack Rohrbach, then vice-president of Shuron Ltd., an eyeglass company.The glasses quickly caught on in popularity amongst eyeglass wearers, resulting in numerous other companies releasing their own browline frames. Most notably, Art-Craft Optical produced the “Art-Rim” brand, which offered designs for both men (under the “Clubman” models) and women (under the “Leading Lady” models) and introduced aluminum tops as an alternative to the zyl plastics used by Shuron.  The style’s popularity rose throughout the next decade, to the point that browline glasses accounted for half of all eyeglass sales in the 1950s, with Shuron alone selling sixteen million browlines between 1947 and 1971.As a result, many famous figures from the mid-20th century wore browlines, including black liberationist Malcolm X, Kentucky Fried Chicken founder Colonel Sanders, and many others.

As of 2011, Shuron and Art-Craft optical still manufacture browline glasses; in the first decade of the 2000s, many other eyeglass manufacturers began to release their own styles.

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Eye protection

Eye protection (eye pro) is protective gear for the eyes, which comes in many types depending upon the threat that is to be reduced. The threats can be particles, light, wind blast, heat, sea spray or some type of ball or puck used in sports.

Goggles

Goggles are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the eye area in order to prevent particulates, infectious fluids, or chemicals from striking the eyes. For example, when swimming, goggles protect the eyes against water.

Protection against light

The human eye is sensitive to intense light because it damages the retina and can even blind the individual. There are many different types of eye protection against light suited for different applications.

The most common forms of eye protection against light are sunglasses. These primarily protect against UV light from the sun and help increase visibility in bright conditions. They often tend to be fashionable as well as practical. Laser protection eyewear is similar but will filter out a particular (or small range of) wavelength(s), customized to the laser being viewed. Laser protection eyewear is particularly important because of the extremely high intensity of laser light.

Welding glass protects against glare and flying sparks. It is a more extreme implementation of the same idea as sunglasses, suited to the more intense light generated during welding. Shade 14 welding glass (which is much stronger than sunglasses) can also be used to stare directly at the sun (e.g. to view a solar eclipse). Arc welding goggles must be much darker than blowtorch goggles.

Other protection

  • Eye protectors used in sports like orienteering and cycling to protect eyes from insects, dust and wind blast.
  • Infection control glasses
  • Eye shields used in External beam radiotherapy to shield sensitive parts of the eye from ionizing radiation

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History of sun glasses

Sunglasses or sun glasses are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes. They can sometimes also function as a visual aid, as variously termed spectacles or glasses exist, featuring lenses that are colored, polarized or darkened. In the early 20th century they were also known as sun cheaters (cheaters being an American slang term for glasses).

Healthcare professionals recommend eye protection whenever the sun comes out  to protect the eyes from ultraviolet radiation (UV) and blue light, which can cause several serious eye problems. Sunglasses have long been associated with celebrities and film actors primarily from a desire to mask their identity. Since the 1940s sunglasses have been popular as a fashion accessory, especially on the beach.

Precursors

Inuit snow goggles function by reducing exposure to sunlight, not by reducing its intensity

In prehistoric and historic time, Inuit peoples wore flattened walrus ivory “glasses,” looking through narrow slits to block harmful reflected rays of the sun .

It is said that the Roman emperor Nero liked to watch gladiator fights with emeralds. These, however, appear to have worked rather like mirrors. Sunglasses made from flat panes of smoky quartz, which offered no corrective powers but did protect the eyes from glare were used in China in the 12th century or possibly earlier. Ancient documents describe the use of such crystal sunglasses by judges in ancient Chinese courts to conceal their facial expressions while questioning witnesses.

James Ayscough began experimenting with tinted lenses in spectacles in the mid-18th century, around 1752. These were not “sunglasses” as that term is now used; Ayscough believed blue- or green-tinted glass could correct for specific vision impairments. Protection from the Sun’s rays was not a concern for him.

Yellow/amber and brown-tinted spectacles were also a commonly prescribed item for people with syphilis in the 19th and early 20th centuries because sensitivity to light was one of the symptoms of the disease.

Modern developments

In the early 1900s, the use of sunglasses started to become more widespread, especially among stars of movies. It is commonly believed that this was to avoid recognition by fans, but an alternative reason sometimes given is that they often had red eyes from the powerful arc lamps that were needed due to the extremely slow speed film stocks used. The stereotype persisted long after improvements in film quality and the introduction of ultraviolet filters had eliminated this problem. Inexpensive mass-produced sunglasses were introduced to America by Sam Foster in 1929. Foster found a ready market on the beaches of Atlantic City, New Jersey, where he began selling sunglasses under the name Foster Grant from a Woolworth on the Boardwalk.

Polarized sunglasses first became available in 1936, when Edwin H. Land began experimenting with making lenses with his patented Polaroid filter.

Standards for sunglasses

There are three major sunglass standards, which are popularly known mostly as a reference for sunglass protection from UV radiation; the standards do, however, also include further requirements. A worldwide ISO standard does not yet exist, but by 2004, attempts to introduce such standard have led to a respective ISO standards committee, subcommittee, technical committee, and several working groups. Sunglasses sold in the United States are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and are required to conform to safety standards.

The Australian Standard is AS/NZS 1067:2003 Sunglasses and fashion spectacles. The five ratings for transmittance (filter) under this standard are based on the amount of absorbed light, 0 to 4, with “0” providing some protection from UV radiation and sunglare, and “4” indicating a high level of protection, but not to be worn when driving. Australia introduced the world’s first national standards for sunglasses in 1971. They were subsequently updated and expanded, leading in 1990 to AS 1067.1-1990 Sunglasses and fashion spectacles (incl. Part 1 Safety Requirements and Part 2 Performance Requirements), which was superseded in part in 2003 by AS/NZS 1067:2003 Sunglasses and fashion spectacles. The 2003 update made the Australian standard relatively similar to the European standard. This step opened the European market to Australian-made sunglasses, but the standard also maintained requirements considered specific to Australia’s climate.

The European standard EN 1836:2005 has four transmittance ratings: “0” for insufficient UV protection, “2” for sufficient UHV protection, “6” for good UHV protection and “7” for “full” UHVV protection, meaning that no more than 5% of the 380 nm rays are transmitted. Products which fulfill the standard receive a CE mark. There is no rating for transmittance protection for radiation of up to 400 nm (“UV400”), as required in other countries (incl. the United States) and recommended by experts. The current standard EN 1836:2005 was preceded by the older standards EN 166:1995 (Personal eye protection –Specifications), EN167: 1995 (Personal eye protection – Optical test methods), and EN168: 1995 (Personal eye protection – Non-optical test methods), which in 2002 were republished as a revised standard under the name of EN 1836:1997 (which included two amendments). In addition to filtering, the standard also lists requirements for minimum robustness, labeling, materials (non-toxic for skin contact and not combustible) and lack of protrusions (to avoid harm when wearing them).

The U.S. standard is ANSI Z80.3-2001, which includes three transmittance categories. According to the ANSI Z80.3-2001 standard, the lens should have a UVB (280 to 315 nm) transmittance of no more than one per cent and a UVA (315 to 380 nm) transmittance of no more than 0.3 times the visual light transmittance. The ANSI Z87.1-2003 standard includes requirements for basic impact and high impact protection. In the basic impact test, a 1 in (2.54 cm) steel ball is dropped on the lens from a height of 50 in (127 cm). In the high velocity test, a 1/4 in (6.35 mm) steel ball is shot at the lens at 150 ft/s (45.72 m/s). To pass both tests, no part of the lens may touch the eye.

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